And the value of that and why this is the humoral system is, all of a sudden, you have all of these viruses that are infecting your system, but now you're producing all of these antibodies. I get very excited about B cells and I'll tell you why in a second. Lymphocytes Human cells Immunology Immune system. And then some are going to become memory cells, which are essentially just B cells that stick around a long time with the perfect receptor on them, with the perfect variable portion of their receptor on them. These antibodies serve as flags, or the flares over a battle site, if you will; they recruit other defensive molecules in the bloodstream to the site, working toward killing the infection-causing organism.
Obviously these proteins-- or maybe not so obviously-- all these proteins that are part of most cells are produced by the genes of that cell. So what the immune system has done through B cells-- and we'll also see it through T cells-- it says, hey, let me just make a bunch of combinations of these things that can essentially bind to whatever I get to. So some will be memory cells and they're going to be in higher quantities than they were originally. Now phagocytosis-- this is called opsonization.
At one stage in their development, there's just a lot of shuffling of the portion of their DNA that codes for here, for these parts of the protein. The "B" from B cells comes from the name of this organ , where it was first discovered by Chang and Glick,  and not from bone marrow as commonly believed. There's just a lot of shuffling that occurs.
They actually have four separate proteins on them and we can call these proteins membrane bound antibodies. Autoimmune disease can result from abnormal B cell recognition of self-antigens followed by the production of autoantibodies. The effector cells are these factories and so these specific antibodies will start bonding. And the antibodies they're going to produce are exactly this combination, the date that they originally had being membrane bound.
Primary Care. And then they have a very specific variable portion on each one and each of these branches can bond to the epitope on a virus. So we'll talk more about B cells in the future, but I just find it fascinating that there are that many combinations and they have enough combinations to really recognize almost anything that can exist in the fluids of our body, but we haven't solved all of the problems yet. Helper T cells.